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Paper 1 - Source evaluation - 60 minutes
Move to Global war unit - examines the Axis build up to WW2
Foreign policy of Italy, Germany & Japan 1930-1941

Question 1 - if you want to avoid running out of time at the end, use bullet points to get your ideas down for 1a + b...


Question 1a): worth 3 marks, spend max 5 minutes on.


Understanding historical sources - reading comprehension.

For 3 marks, give at least 3 clear points from the source. Paraphrase from the source - i.e. put things in your own words (you can quote but you don't have to do so, and you should avoid just copying large parts of the source).

How to write the answer?

"The first reason given by the source is ....

The second reason given by the source is ....

The third reason given by the source is .........."

Question 1b): worth 2 marks, spend max 5 minutes on.


Understanding historical sources - political cartoon/image analysis.

For 2 marks, give two clear (and separate) points about the 'message' conveyed in the source, supporting each point with evidence from the source.

If it is a cartoon you are analysing, make sure you choose the key figures/symbols you understand to illustrate any points you make!!

How to write the answer?


Furthermore, this......(evidence).... shows......(message)......"



Question 2: worth 4 marks, spend max 10 minutes on. 

Source evaluation: OPCVL - see table below....


Evaluate the source explaining who wrote it and why, and what values, or strengths, and limitations, or weaknesses, these provide for a historian studying the given topic by using the content.


Before writing your answer read through the source carefully, paying particular attention to the italicized text above the source informing you wrote it and when. Look carefully at what the source is saying and see if there are any signs of emotional language, etc, that might be useful in your response.


Ideally, you will find multiple clear values and limitations, but it might turn out you find one value and one limitation - don't worry if this happens, it is determined by the sources you are given, Indeed, make sure that you concentrate on giving values and limitations that are specific to the source's content.


Don't use phrases like it is useful as it is a primary source; it is limited as it is a secondary source and the author wasn't there, etc etc!!   


How to write the answer?

Remember content has to be mentioned at least once, whether that's as a value or limitation to achieve a 4 out of 4

The origin/purpose is valuable because ............

The content is also valuable because ......... . 

The origin/purpose is limited because ............

The content is also limited because ......... ."

4 marks given to answers who use origin, purpose + content in either values or limitations in a balanced answer...

Question 3: worth 6 marks, spend max 15 minutes on.


Compare and contrast sources by assessing the source content.

For 6 marks, you need to write two paragraphs which first compare, then secondly contrast the two sources, carefully supported by quotes. Make sure that you focus on answering the terms of the question - ie. it might be asking you to compare/contrast in relation to a very specific topic, not just the sources in general.

Ideally you will be able to find two clear points of comparison and two clear points of contrast, but don't worry if you end up having two of one and one of the other - it depends a little on the sources you are given to compare! Write the first paragraph on points of comparison, and the second on points of contrast.

Before writing your answer read through the sources carefully and underline key quotes you plan to use. If needs be, you can use the scrap paper given to jot down briefly what your key points will be - even it is just key words, this might help you when it comes to writing the answer!

How to write the answer?

Two separate paragraphs: 


"Both sources agree that .....

Source C says that ......... and Source D says that ....

The sources also agree that ...... 

Source C says that ......... and Source D says that ....

"The sources contrast in ..........

While Source C says .........., Source D says ............."

Question 4: worth 9 marks - at least 25 minutes.


Mini-essay, using a synthesis or blend of all sources and own knowledge!


This is the most challenging question, and the one worth the most marks, which is why you need to allow enough time to produce a decent answer here. Crucial to remember is that you must, must, must use both all the sources and your own detailed and specific knowledge in your answer - if you  use only the sources (and no own knowledge), or only own knowledge (and no sources), the maximum you can score is 5 marks. You must use a synthesis of sources and own knowledge to produce a clear response to the question! In this sense, it is just like a full essay: you need to focus on clearly addressing the question, developing a clear argument, and challenging any assumptions in the question if you can.


How to approach this mini-essay?


Spend a couple of minutes re-reading the sources and planning your argument. As this question often asks you how far you agree with a particular   statement, I recommend that you might want to draw a quick chart structuring how you are going to use all the sources and include your own  knowledge. Obviously, you do not want to spend a lot of time doing this, and how you order it depends on the question given, but it can be a useful  planning tool to help you write your answer. 


An example is as follows:


'Using both your knowledge and the sources, assess the extent to which the Spanish Civil War was the creation of social and not military considerations.'


                  Agrees with statement .       Disagrees with statement .                Both agrees and disagrees

Sources .  A, E                                        B, D                                                      C


Own knowledge
Franco only starts to lead the Nationalist forces at the last minute etc etc


When it comes to writing your answer, you may include a brief introduction to define the question, but you do not need to do so - it can be a waste of words and time. It is therefore ok to go straight into your first paragraph, which should include a clear point directed at answering the question, which is then supported by QUOTES from the sources ("as Source A states......") and your own detailed knowledge ("from background knowledge I know that .......).

Have a second paragraph which uses sources and own knowledge to present the other side of the argument, according to the same model as above, and don't forget that when discussing different sources and interpretations you can show an awareness of the source evaluation (OPVL) you carried out in Q3 - i.e. "Source B argues that Franco was completely responsible for the conflict, but of course this is written from an Republican perspective..... etc etc". On the other hand, do not let this distract you from the main task of ANSWERING THE QUESTION! If you have time, and the sources allow it, there might be scope for a third paragraph as well, but it depends a little on the particulars of the exam.

When you have finished your main body, write a clear conclusion that offers a balanced response to the essay question. Remember that challenging the question in the conclusion can be about disagreeing with particularly loaded words in the question statement - i.e. "brutal", "overwhelming", "mainly", "to a large extent" etc etc. If you run out of time before you manage to complete your answer to this question - :( - you can try and get your points down in bullet points in the last minute or so to see if you might be capable of getting some credit for your ideas from the examiner.

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