614-615 - Causes of Industrial Revolution
616-617 - Early Industry + Textiles
617-618 - Factories + Railways
618-619 - Spread of Industrialisation
619-621; 622 - Social Impact
621+623 - New Ways of thinking
652-655 - Second Industrial Revolution
655-657 - Working class politics
658-659 - Public Health Reform
660. - New class structures
661-663 - Women in Society
664-665 - Education + Leisure
The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution is different from the two largely political revolutions just looked at. This is a socio-economic revolution which changed the way we work, we make money, we see each other, and how we interact with the planet. None of this was obvious to those pioneers and entrepreneurs who started to change traditional working habits in 18th century Great Britain however. They had no idea their isolated experiments would change the face of the earth and the fortunes of modern Europe. What were these changes, who started them...and why?
Causes of the Industrial Revolution - SAFER
Using the introductory SAFER text, explore why the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain in the 1700s, and then consolidate that understanding using the digital text above, via the factory icon, and the video resources below using the attached Word document worksheets to help you make resources..
Serendipity or Luck - as with all major historical events, there is an element of luck about the emergence of industry in Great Britain with all the right factors in the same place at the same time as we will see below....
Agricultural - the building blocks of the IR were established not in Revolution towns but in the countryside, where 1000s of years of tradition were rapidly replaced by new rules (Enclosure), methods (3 + 4 field crop rotation) and new technology (seed drills, ploughs)
Factories - the increase in food production and resulting rural exodus of population to towns in search of jobs allowed for the evolution of the factory system on an industrial scale. Once this system had proved itself successful in the Peak District countryside in Northern England, the next step was to to move these factories to where the labour now was. James Watt's smaller, more portable steam engine allowed factory owners to move away from fast flowing rivers in the middle of nowhere and instead of using water to power their machines, were then able to steam instead and so put their factories wherever they wanted. The mass production age with huge workforces was now possible
Empire - however, without the British Empire all of this would have mattered for very little. If there has been limited resources to use (cotton, malleable metals, hardwoods) with few markets to sell the products to (N America, India, E Asia) then there would have been no reward for industrialising and so no revolution. the fact that Britain had an empire which could provide these resources and markets meant that the revolution once launched could continue and evolve and ultimately spread.....
Rising - fundamentally however, the outcome of all this success reinforced Wages the trend within Britain which had seen wages begin to steadily increase year on year. What this did was to create a feedback
loop - with more wages having to be paid to more workers,
industrialists had more incentive to invest in machines - with the
success that machines brought, wages went up, and more
industrialists sought to invest in machines...and so on. This
situation was encouraged by the cheap and available energy
sources available in Britain from the plentiful coal seams lying on
or near the surface, meaning that machines would always prove a
cheaper option than a multiplying, highly paid manual workforce.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The spread of industrialisation saw great change affect first of all the UK, then N. Europe, and finally areas further afield such as Russia and the USA. These changes were both material in terms of affecting people's day to day lives and their standards of living, and intellectual in terms of inspiring new modes of thought and ideas about how we should organise this new society and its resources.
These two videos on the left and underneath illustrate these changes, whilst the icons at the bottom are links to the key thinkers of the Industrial Enlightenment.
Adam Smith Jeremy Bentham Robert Owen. Karl Marx
Crash Course Big History - The Modern revolution; The Anthropecene and Near Future
- "Why the Industrial Revolution started here" - BBC documentary on start of Ind Rev
- "Filthy Cities" BBC documentary on how the Industrial Revolution affected New York...
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/links/Links.html - Industrial Revolution links
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
http://prezi.com/1awheumobkwh/copy-of-industrial-revolution-england/ - Prezi intro to causes (as well as effects)
http://worldhistory.pppst.com/industrialrevolution.html - Powerpoint look at causes only...
Transport of the Industrial Revolution
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/ - Interactive website introducing effects of Ind Rev by examining following era - the Victorians
Changing ways of thinking
http://www.victorianweb.org/economics/smith.html - Adam Smith & Laissez Faire
http://www.utilitarianism.com/bentham.htm - Jeremy Bentham & Utilitarianism
http://www.suite101.com/content/robert-owen-and-utopian-socialism-a119434 - Robert Owen & Utopian Socialism
http://www.suite101.com/content/karl-marx-and-communism-a58436 - Karl Marx & Communism
http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/gcselinks/industrialrevolution/industrial_worksheets.shtml - Helpful revision worksheets for Industrial Revolution......