South Africa 1948-1964

How did South Africa evolve over the 20th century from colony to apartheid to freedom?

  1. Describe S Africa at the start of the period

  2. What was apartheid?

  3. How was it implemented?

  4. What effects did it have on people and their lives?

  5. How was it opposed?

  6. How was the apartheid regime defeated?

What was Apartheid and how was it implemented?

Bottaro 118-123 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

118-119 - What were the roots of segregation in South Africa?

119-121 - How did segregation affect people's lives day to day?

121-122 - How did WW2 impact S African politics + society?

122-123 - What happened in the 1948 election and how did it impact S Africa?

Bottaro 124-134 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

124.       - What was apartheid?

124        - What two Acts of 1949-50 underpinned apartheid and why? 

125        - Why was the Population Registration Act so important to these Acts and apartheid?

125-127 - How were the population segregated?

127.       - How were amenities segregated?

127-128 - How was education segregated?

128-129 - How were urban populations controlled - why didn't these urban influx laws work?

129-131 - What were townships, why were they built, and how did the Govt implement them?

131-132  - What was the homelands policy and what were the ideas behind it?

132-133 - What was life like on these homelands?

133-134 - How were the people of South Africa disenfranchised, stripped of the vote?

How was Apartheid opposed?

Bottaro 146-150 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

146.       - What was the early opposition to segregation?

147-148 - What opposition evolved over WW2? 

149-150  - How did opposition to segregation evolve after WW2?

Bottaro 151-162 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

151.       - What was the ANC's programme of action?

151-52   - How did the Defiance Campaign work and how successful was it? 

153.       - What was the Freedom Charter and how effective was it?

154        - How did the Government respond in 1956 with what results?

155-56    - Outline the role of women in this struggle?

157.        - How was communal resistance organised?

158-59    - What was the PAC and how did it clash with the Freedom Charter?

160-61    - What were pass laws and how were these protested against?

161-62    - How did these protests culminate in the Sharpeville Massacre with what results??

162         - What happened in Cape Town a week later?  Why are these two events important?

Bottaro 164-171 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

164.       - What was the background to escalating international protests vs apartheid?

164-5     - Who were the AAM, what were their aims + how did these change after Sharpeville

165.       - Who was Trevor Huddleston?

165-66   - How did the AAM organise protests against apartheid?

166-67    - Outline the role of the UN in this struggle?

167.        - What was UN Resolution 1761 + what did it signify?

167-69    - How did the international situation change in 1963 + what was its impact in the UN?

169-70    - What were the attitudes of Western governments towards apartheid

Bottaro 171-179 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

171.        - How did Sharpeville massacre affect protest in S Africa ?

171-72   - How did Government repression after Sharpeville affect the ANC + PAC? 

172-74.   - How did the ANC start to organise armed resistance?

174-75    - How did the PAC start armed resistance?  Who were the ARM?

175-76     - How did the Government respond + what were the results?

176-78     - Who was put on trial in the Rivonia Trial 63-64 and what happened as a result?

179.         - What was the situation in S Africa by the end of 1964?

Who was FW de Klerk and what is his legacy?

- top image - FW de Klerk obituary 11/11/21 (written before 2019)

- bottom images - assessments of de Klerk's legacy