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Philosophy Option Complementaire – Y14 Maturité



The exam lasts 15 minutes with a time of preparation of the same duration.

It focuses on one of the works announced in the programme, along with the first two areas of study.



Generally, expectations include :

  • the ability to enter text and questions, solve problems, define concepts, insert them into context and to display adequate knowledge

  • the structure of the explanation and the adequacy of speech to its object

  • clarity and relevance of the speech

In terms of what is expected in more detail, the candidate must demonstrate:

  • understanding of the extract

  • the ability to highlight its key ideas , structure and argument

  • the ability to show understanding of the work, the author and current philosophical questions

  • the ability to connect the extract, the work or the author to another "great" philosopher 

  • the ability to expose a personal point of view and defend it with arguments ;

  • the ability to judge the merits of the arguments, to consider different positions and defend these views objectively

  • a high quality of responses to interjections by the examiner.



Candidates study three areas.

The work or two works studied in the third chapter are related in perspective with the first two.


The candidate is able to:

  • address personally and in a coherent dialogue the question of the nature of philosophy.

  • present knowledge and explain some key ideas of Plato, Aristotle, René Descartes,  and Immanuel Kant

  • present knowledge and explain some key ideas of two other philosophers from one of the following periods :


- Middle Ages (St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Meister Eckhart )


- 19th century (Hegel, Marx, Mill, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard )

- 20th century (Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Bergson, Sartre, Arendt).


The candidate is able to:

  • present, explain and compare the two ethics of two philosophers

  • present and defend their point of view



In relation to a philosophical work worth two points (or two works worth a point ​​in the corresponding list), the candidate is able to:

  • explain key concepts, highlighted in the text structure and articulation of the argument

  • outline the main ideas and the intention of the chosen extract

  • put the  extract in the broader context of the author + highlight its place in the currents of thought of the relevant time

  • evaluate the work in a critical and reasoned manner, connecting it to a "great" philosopher (or another "great" philosopher )

  • present an alternative philosophical position relative to the chosen work


During registration, the candidate must announce:

  • the work or works (the choice must total two points) they will discuss - the title , author, publisher and number of points in the list

  • both philosophers selected in the chapter "Introduction to philosophy"

  • two ethical philosopher prepared under Chapter "Ethics"

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