Protest I : Underground Railroad


So how did people in the Deep South of the USA  cope with their enslavement on the cotton plantations?  Many tried to escape, which often led to been more vicious punishment if they were caught.  To this end, a resistance movement was organised which helped arrange the escape.

This became known as the Underground Railroad, with its most famous leader a woman called Harriet Tubman, herself an escapee from a plantation.

Use the information from the websites on the left and underneath to complete your A3 railroad diagrams displaying how the organisation worked and how Harriet Tubman found freedom and helped others...


Protest II : Civil War

So how did this protest evolve or develop?

With the growing number of escaped slaves came a growing number of accounts of the horrors of plantation life.  Alongside this evidence, the growing international condemnation of the slave trade was gathering strength.  Many Northern states had already banned slavery, but the Deep South had multiple reasons for insisting it stay.  Its entire economy was built on slave labour, and a ban would cripple the plantations and businesses.  Moreover, they resented being told what to do by' uppity Northerners' who they saw as having no idea about what it meant to be Southern.

The result was heading for war.....

Your job is to research how civil war started in the USA - (1) make a timeline + answer Q1; and (2) answer Q3 on page 19

How successful was war as protest?

The institution of slavery found itself abolished whilst the Civil War was still raging, with President Abraham Lincoln

issuing the Emancipation Doctrine in 1863.  However, it wasn't until the war's end that this actually became a reality with the Southern Confederate states' surrender.

The big question for the Union states now was how to replace this fundamental economic, social and political institution and with what?  Moreover, how were the defeated, yet still highly motivated white Southerners to be brought back into the Union and contribute to the USA?

For the emancipated millions of course, the key question was whether the protest of the Civil War and its successes would be for the better or for the worse.

Again, using the information on the pages above, and the article on the right, construct a timeline of Reconstruction 1865-1903 and then answer Qs 1+2 on page 21.


Protest III - Civil Rights

So how had Reconstruction helped shape the 20th Century for the millions freed by the Emancipation Proclamation?  Millions headed north away from the South to find economic success and social acceptance in the industrial cities of the North...only to encounter racism and ghettoisation in their new homes.  Those that stayed found themselves subject to Jim Crow segregation and lynching.  In short, people's lives although technically free were still being controlled by the old racist power structures that existed before Emancipation.  The desire for Civil Rights and genuine freedom accelerated after WWII's fight against Fascism..and it is here we see our last case study into protest with the Civil Rights Campaigns of 1950s and 60s USA...Read the text on the left and answer the qs...

So what challenges faced the Civil Rights Movements who were protesting against the institutional racism in the South?  Their opponents included police, the FBI, state governments and governors alongside White Citizen's Councils and organisations like the KKK.  Each one made the protestors jobs difficult and dangerous in different ways.  However, these difficulties and dangers didn't stop the protestors.  They managed to launch challenges to White power across the South in a wide number of areas - school education; university access; equal public access; transport; freedom from violence; voting rights etc..

How were protestors (1) obstructed in their protests?; and (2) how successful were their protest in getting the civil rights they wanted?

Read the pages on the right and answer:

q 2 p33; q1 p35; q1 p37