USA 1919-1965

Civil Rights 1956-65

Race relations in USA up to 1950s...

Paper One's topic of Rights + protest starts off in the USA, looking at the early years of the Civil Rights Movement - its emergence, its early successes, the role of individuals on it, and what ultimately limited these successes.  As such, we need to look at a general history of race relations in the USA up to the 1950s

- read the scanned text on the right via the book icon having first gone through the Powerpoint on What are Civil Rights?

- having read the text and made notes, tackle the sources via the q mark

(1) Compare + contrast sources A + B's accounts of everyday life for African-Americans leading up to 1941

(2) with reference to Origin, Purpose, content, assess the values and limitation of the photograph from the Library of Congress' archives

(3) How does Source C illustrate the importance of WW2 to the African-American community

Brown vs Topeka 1954 - breakthrough!

Bottaro 25-31 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes

25 -26 - What did Brown vs Topeka Board of Education legal case try to achieve and why?

26.      - What was the verdict and why was it important, especially for segregation?

26-28. - how did the process of desegregation get underway?

28-29. - What did Eisenhower do and why?

29.      - How was the verdict opposed? (Massive Resistance; Southern Manifesto; Mississippi; FBI activity)

30.      - What eventually did happen as a result of the verdict and why was it so slow to be adopted?

Little Rock 1957 + federal backing

Bottaro 31-39 - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

31-32 - How had the CRM grown since Brown v Topeka?

32-33 - How had BvT sparked a crisis at Little Rock High School, Arkansas?

33-34 - How did the federal and state governments respond'?

34-35 - What happened to the Little Rock Nine?

35-36 - How did the state government continue to resist integration?

36-37 - what was the significance or importance of Little Rock for the CRM?

37 -      How did this crisis reflect on the Republican Government of Eisenhower?

37-39 - What legislative  and political impact did Little Rock have?

Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56 - direct action!


Scott-Baumann 41-49 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

41-42 - What happened in Montgomery 1955-56?

42      - How had Emmett Till's murder affected the African American community?

42.     - Who was Rosa Parks?

43-44 - How was the Bus Boycott organised? (Nixon + Robinson; the MIA + MLK)

44+46 - How was the Boycotte widened and extended?

46.      - What were the initial effects of the Boycott?

47       - What were the successes of the Boycott??

49       - Why were these successes limited?

Greensboro Sit-ins 1960 - escalation of protest + action...


Scott-Baumann 49-55 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

49-50 - What were sit-ins; where and how did they start?

50- 51 - How + why did these sit-in protests spring up all over the South?

51-52  - What happened in Nashville in February 1960 and what were the results?

52       - How did the NAACP + SCLC react?

53-54  - What was the SNCC and how did the sit-ins help create it?

54-5    - How did this escalation in direct action influence the election of JFK?

Freedom Rides & 'Ole Miss' 1961-62 - direct federal intervention


Scott-Baumann 55-58 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

55-56 - What were freedom rides; where and how did they start?

56.      - What was the reaction in the South when the first freedom ride arrived in Alabama?

56-57  - What was the initial reaction of John F Kennedy's federal government?

57       - How was the next freedom ride treated and why was the reaction by the federal government?

57.      - How was Robert Kennedy's request for a cooling off period met by protestors across the USA?

57.      - How did this escalation lead to further desegregation?

57-58   - What was the Battle of 'Ole Miss' and how did it lead to further federal intervention in 1962

Birmingham Campaign 1963 - turning point


Scott-Baumann 58-65 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

58-60  - What was the Albany Movement?  How did it affect the CRM?  What lessons were learnt?

60-61  - Why did MLK and the NAACP now focus on Birmingham, Alabama?

61.      - What was Project Confrontation and how did MLK lead it?

61-62  - How did MLKs letter from jail justify and explain the Birmingham protest?

63-4    - What was the Children's Crusade and what impact did it have?

64       - What was the impact of the Birmingham Campaign?

64-65  - How did JFK react?

March on Washington 1963 - national success...but limited impact?


Scott-Baumann 66-70 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

66-67  - Why was the March on Washington planned??

67-68  - How was it organised?

68.      - What happened on the day?  How did MLK take centre stage?

69       - How was the March a success?

69-70   - Why was it seen by some as a disappointment?

Freedom Summer 1964 - global recognition, but internal division..

Bottaro 59-65 (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

59.      - What were the aims of the Freedom Summer?

60.      - Why did organisers target Mississippi and what were the threats workers faced?

60-62  - What happened to provoke national outrage in mid June?

62-63   - What impact did this have?  How did the original aims increase in scope?

63-64   - What was the MFDP?  Why was it created?  What was the impact on the Democrat leadership?

64-65.  - What was the impact of the Fredeom Summer overall?  What was the impact on the CRM?

Civil Rights Act + Selma March 1964 - legislation + violence...

Bottaro 66-71  (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

66-67   - How did the Civil Rights Act legally end segregation in the South in 1964?

68        - What problems did the Bill face in getting passed?

68-9.    - What were the consequences of the Act in 1964-5?

69.       - What loophole still existed however, and what did the SCLC decide to do as a result in Alabama?

69.       - What happened in February in Selma?  How was this followed up in March?

69-70.  - What was the impact of these marches?


Voting Rights Act + Watts Riot 1965 - legislation + violence...

Bottaro 71-77  (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:

71-72   - Why was the Voting Rights Act necessary in 1965?

72-73   - What did the Act introduce and what were the effects?

73.       - What happened in Watts, Los Angeles in August 1965?

73-74   - What did events and MLK's reaction to them, reveal about the future direction of the CRM?

75 -77  - Outline the significance and impact of these two major pieces of reform.