Civil Rights 1956-65
Race relations in USA up to 1950s...
Paper One's topic of Rights + protest starts off in the USA, looking at the early years of the Civil Rights Movement - its emergence, its early successes, the role of individuals on it, and what ultimately limited these successes. As such, we need to look at a general history of race relations in the USA up to the 1950s
- read the scanned text on the right via the book icon having first gone through the Powerpoint on What are Civil Rights?
- having read the text and made notes, tackle the sources via the q mark
(1) Compare + contrast sources A + B's accounts of everyday life for African-Americans leading up to 1941
(2) with reference to Origin, Purpose, content, assess the values and limitation of the photograph from the Library of Congress' archives
(3) How does Source C illustrate the importance of WW2 to the African-American community
Brown vs Topeka 1954 - breakthrough!
Bottaro 25-31 - read, highlight, use qs to create bullet point notes
25 -26 - What did Brown vs Topeka Board of Education legal case try to achieve and why?
26. - What was the verdict and why was it important, especially for segregation?
26-28. - how did the process of desegregation get underway?
28-29. - What did Eisenhower do and why?
29. - How was the verdict opposed? (Massive Resistance; Southern Manifesto; Mississippi; FBI activity)
30. - What eventually did happen as a result of the verdict and why was it so slow to be adopted?
Little Rock 1957 + federal backing
Bottaro 31-39 - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
31-32 - How had the CRM grown since Brown v Topeka?
32-33 - How had BvT sparked a crisis at Little Rock High School, Arkansas?
33-34 - How did the federal and state governments respond'?
34-35 - What happened to the Little Rock Nine?
35-36 - How did the state government continue to resist integration?
36-37 - what was the significance or importance of Little Rock for the CRM?
37 - How did this crisis reflect on the Republican Government of Eisenhower?
37-39 - What legislative and political impact did Little Rock have?
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56 - direct action!
Scott-Baumann 41-49 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
41-42 - What happened in Montgomery 1955-56?
42 - How had Emmett Till's murder affected the African American community?
42. - Who was Rosa Parks?
43-44 - How was the Bus Boycott organised? (Nixon + Robinson; the MIA + MLK)
44+46 - How was the Boycotte widened and extended?
46. - What were the initial effects of the Boycott?
47 - What were the successes of the Boycott??
49 - Why were these successes limited?
Greensboro Sit-ins 1960 - escalation of protest + action...
Scott-Baumann 49-55 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
49-50 - What were sit-ins; where and how did they start?
50- 51 - How + why did these sit-in protests spring up all over the South?
51-52 - What happened in Nashville in February 1960 and what were the results?
52 - How did the NAACP + SCLC react?
53-54 - What was the SNCC and how did the sit-ins help create it?
54-5 - How did this escalation in direct action influence the election of JFK?
Freedom Rides & 'Ole Miss' 1961-62 - direct federal intervention
Scott-Baumann 55-58 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
55-56 - What were freedom rides; where and how did they start?
56. - What was the reaction in the South when the first freedom ride arrived in Alabama?
56-57 - What was the initial reaction of John F Kennedy's federal government?
57 - How was the next freedom ride treated and why was the reaction by the federal government?
57. - How was Robert Kennedy's request for a cooling off period met by protestors across the USA?
57. - How did this escalation lead to further desegregation?
57-58 - What was the Battle of 'Ole Miss' and how did it lead to further federal intervention in 1962
Birmingham Campaign 1963 - turning point
Scott-Baumann 58-65 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
58-60 - What was the Albany Movement? How did it affect the CRM? What lessons were learnt?
60-61 - Why did MLK and the NAACP now focus on Birmingham, Alabama?
61. - What was Project Confrontation and how did MLK lead it?
61-62 - How did MLKs letter from jail justify and explain the Birmingham protest?
63-4 - What was the Children's Crusade and what impact did it have?
64 - What was the impact of the Birmingham Campaign?
64-65 - How did JFK react?
March on Washington 1963 - national success...but limited impact?
Scott-Baumann 66-70 (digital text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
66-67 - Why was the March on Washington planned??
67-68 - How was it organised?
68. - What happened on the day? How did MLK take centre stage?
69 - How was the March a success?
69-70 - Why was it seen by some as a disappointment?
Freedom Summer 1964 - global recognition, but internal division..
Bottaro 59-65 (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
59. - What were the aims of the Freedom Summer?
60. - Why did organisers target Mississippi and what were the threats workers faced?
60-62 - What happened to provoke national outrage in mid June?
62-63 - What impact did this have? How did the original aims increase in scope?
63-64 - What was the MFDP? Why was it created? What was the impact on the Democrat leadership?
64-65. - What was the impact of the Fredeom Summer overall? What was the impact on the CRM?
Civil Rights Act + Selma March 1964 - legislation + violence...
Bottaro 66-71 (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
66-67 - How did the Civil Rights Act legally end segregation in the South in 1964?
68 - What problems did the Bill face in getting passed?
68-9. - What were the consequences of the Act in 1964-5?
69. - What loophole still existed however, and what did the SCLC decide to do as a result in Alabama?
69. - What happened in February in Selma? How was this followed up in March?
69-70. - What was the impact of these marches?
Voting Rights Act + Watts Riot 1965 - legislation + violence...
Bottaro 71-77 (scanned text left) - read, highlight, make notes using the qs as subtitles:
71-72 - Why was the Voting Rights Act necessary in 1965?
72-73 - What did the Act introduce and what were the effects?
73. - What happened in Watts, Los Angeles in August 1965?
73-74 - What did events and MLK's reaction to them, reveal about the future direction of the CRM?
75 -77 - Outline the significance and impact of these two major pieces of reform.